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p-Block Elements - Group 15 To 18

p-Block Elements - Group 15 To 18 logoSubject: Chemistry    Exam: MH-CET / MHTCET Engineering

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Important Points

On moving down the group as the atomic number increases, the atomic radii increases due to increase in number of shells. There is considerable increase in covalent radius from N to P. However, from Sb to Bi, only small increase in covalent radius is observed. It is due to the presence of completely filled d or f-orbitals in heavier members.

On moving down the group 15 from N to Bi, electronegativity decreases due to the gradual increase in atomic size. Electronegativity of N is the third highest in the periodic table.
The common oxidation state of group 15 elements are -3, +3, and +5. The tendency to show -3 oxidation state decreases down the group because atomic size and metallic character increases. Bi does not form any compound in -3 oxidation state.
The elements of group 15 have a tendency to form bonds with itself (self linking of atoms), known as catenation. The tendency towards catenation decreases in bond enthalpy. Nitrogen has little tendency for catenation due to repulsion between non-bonded electron pair.
In the periodic table, carbon has the maximum tendency for catenation.

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