Structural Organisation In Animals


Structural Organisation In Animals logoSubject: Biology    Exam: AIPMT / NEET-UG

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Important Points

Nephridiopores of integumentary nephridia 200-250 per segment found in all segments of earthworm except the first six. Clitellar segment contains 2000 nephridipores per segment, so called 'forest of nephridia'.
All segments of earthworm except the first, last and clitellar segment contain setae (perichaetine arrangement). Setae are 'S' - shaped, yellowish and chitinus, 80-120 segment. Setae and contraction of muscles help in locomotion.
In male cockroach, eighth and ninth terga are overlapped by seventh tergum. In female seventh, eighth and ninth stema are fused to form a brood pouch. Seventh stermum of brood pouch forms a pair of gynavalvular plates.
Sense organs in cockroach are - Photoreceptors (compound and simple eyes), thigmoreceptors (antennae), chemoreceptors (on maxillary and labial palps, labium and hypopharynx) and auditory receptors on anal cerci.
Frog can peform respiration through three methods - cutaneous, buccopharyngeal and pulmonary.Cutaneous respiration occurs in water, during hibernation and even aestivation. Buccopharyngeal respiration is performed when oxygen requirement is less, during rest over land and while 'floating' in water.Pulmonary respiration occurs when oxygen demand is high. The rate is not more than 20/min. as compared to 80/min for buccopharyngeal respiration.
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