Plantae logoSubject: Biology    Exam: CMC Vellore

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Important Points

Certain liverworts (like Marchantia) produce and contain sterile, diploid, dead and hygroscopic structures called elators mixed with spores in their capsule. Hygroscopic movements of elators loosen the compact mass of spores and help in their wind-dispersal.
Not all so-called mosses are true bryophytes. Reindeer moss (Cladonia) and Californian Spanish Moss (Ramalina) are lichens. Irish moss (Chondrus) is an edible red alga. Club moss (Lycopodium) and spike moss (Selaginella) are pteridophytes.
In gymnosperms, the sole surviving haploid megaspore in the ovule divides by repeated mitosis to form a multicellular female prothallus with highly reduced archegonia. This is in stark contrast to the angiosperms where due to intense reduction of gametophyte through evolution, the female prothallus lacks archegonia and is typically 7-celled 8-nucleated embryo sac. Thus gymnosperms are the seed plants possessing archegonia.
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