Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties


Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties logoSubject: Chemistry    Exam: AIPMT / NEET-UG

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Important Points

Elements in the same period show trends in atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electro negativity. Moving left to right across a period, atomic radius usually decreases. This occurs because each successive element has an added proton and electron which causes the electron to be drawn closer to the nucleus.
A group or family is a vertical column in the periodic table.
The total number of electron shells an atom has determines the period to which it belongs. Each shell is divided into different subshells, which as atomic number increases are filled in roughly this order.
Quantum mechanical theories of atomic structure explain group trends by proposing that elements within the same group have the same electron configurations in their valence shell, which is the most important factor in accounting for their similar properties. Elements in the same group also show patterns in their atomic radius, ionization energy, and electro negativity. From top to bottom in a group, the atomic radii of the elements increase.
A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table.
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