Biological Classification


Biological Classification logoSubject: Botany    Exam: AP EAMCET Medical (AM)

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Important Points

Fungi have haplontic life cycle with zygotic meiosis. Yeast is exceptional in having haplo-diplobiontic life cycle, with both haploid and diploid life forms existing.
Cyanobacteria occur as algal symbiont (=phycosymbiont) in the lichen thallus, while fungal symbiont (=mycosymbiont) is mostly an ascomycota (=sac-fungus).
Monerans that are heterotrophs and possess peptidylglycans (or mureins/muramic acid) as chief cell wall constituents are called eubacteria. Depending upon their stainability under Gram's staining schedule using crystal violet, eubacteria are further subdivided into Gram + ve and Gram -ve. Cell wall of Gram +ve bacteria is homogenous and made entirely of peptidylglycans whereas that of Gram -ve bacteria is two -layered : with inner layers of peptidylglycans and outer one of glycolipids. Gram -ve bacteria have greater resistance to many antibiotics including penicillin.
Rod-shaped Mycobacterium tuberculosis is also called Bacillus Calmette-Guerrin and hence vaccine against TB is also called BCG-vaccine. It was discovered by Koch and thus TB is also Koch's infection. Koch together with Pasteur proposed the Germ theory of diseases. He further suggested a procedure (called Koch's postulates) to identify the germ causing a disease. Obligate parasites (like Viruses) defy Koch's postulates since they cannot be grown in pure cultures or axenic cultures.

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