Biodiversity logoSubject: Biology    Exam: CMC Vellore

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Important Points

If the amount of energy available at one trophic level is plotted geometrically over that of the previous level in a sequence representing the entire food chain existing in an ecosystem, the pyramid-shaped configuration so obtained, would be referred to as ecological pyramid of energy. In such pyramids, the producer is represented at the base while tertiary consumers at the apse. Ecological pyramid of energy is always upright (with vertex at the top), in concomitance with Lindermann's 10 percent law.
Notable national parks/sanctuaries in India are : (i) Jim Corbett National Park at Ramnagar in UP (for Tiger and Elephant) , Rajaji National Park near Rishikesh (for Tiger and Elephant), Kaziranga National Park in Assam (for one-horned rhinoceros), Bandipur Wildlife Sanctuary in Karnataka (for elephant ) , Sunderbans in West Bengal (for Royal Bengal Tiger), Keoladeo National Park at Bharatpur in Rajasthan (for migratory birds, mainly saurus and pelicans), Sultanpur Sanctuary in Haryana, and nearest-one from Delhi (for migratory birds, mainly pelican), Gir Sanctuary in Gujarat (for asiatic lion), Rann of Kutch in Gujarat ( for wild ass), Kanha National Park near Mandla in Madhya Pradesh (for barasingha), Silent Valley Park at Palghat in Kerala (so-named for the lack of insects that chirp at night), Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Mumbai (for panther , 4-horned antelope , mouse deer and crocodiles) , Sariska National Park at Alwar in Rajasthan (for tiger and leopard), Khangchendzonga National Park in Sikkim (for clouded Leopard and snow Leopard), Madhumalai sanctuary in Tamil Naidu (for tiger and elephant), Valley of Flowers in Uttaranchal (for snow leopard and musk deer) and the Great Himalaya National Park in Himachal Pradesh (for musk deer, flying squirrel, Himalayan thar and leopard).
If the biomasses of successive trophic levels are plotted one above the other in a sequence , then it would make ecological pyramid of biomass. Since biomass represents chemical energy , the ecological pyramid of biomass would also always be upright as is mandatory under the 10 percent law of Lindermann.
If the number of individuals representing each trophic level is plotted geometrically over that of the previous level in a sequence , then it would constitute the ecological pyramid of numbers. Pyramid of numbers would be . inverted in case of the tree ecosystem (with a single producer ) and the forest ecosystem (with fewer producers, being trees). In case of pond ecosystem , lake ecosystem , riverine ecosystem and oceanic ecosystem, pyramid of numbers will be upright.
Government of India passed the Wildlife (Protection) Act in 1972 to create National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. There are 434 National Parks and Sanctuaries in India , of which 17 are selected as 'Project Tiger' areas.
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