Animal Kingdom


Animal Kingdom logoSubject: Biology    Exam: AIIMS

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Important Points

Remembering the division of the animal kingdom (in order)
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
King Paul Called Out For Gus and Sam
Urochordata is also called Tunicata since the adult body is enclosed within a leathery test or Tunic made of cellulose like Tunicin. Their feeding apparatus is called endostyle. They also show paedogenesis (=reproduction by larva). Notable Urochordates/Tunicates are sea squirt (Herdmania), Doliolum and Salpa. Cephalochordata have notochord extending from tail upto cephalic region. Nerve cord is tubular and hollow to notochord. Pharynx is surrounded by a large chamber called Atrium which opens to the outside by an aperture called Atriopore. Notable example is Branchiostoma (=Amphioxus)
Gnathostomata are divisible into five classes: Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. The last four classes are put occasionally together in a group Tetrapoda. Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia collectively may be called Amniota since their embryo is surrounded development by a membrane called Amnion enclosing a private little 'pond' of amnionic fluid around the embryo. Pisces and Amphibia (also called Anamniota together) have mesonephric kidney whereas the Amniota have more efficient metanephric kidney.
Fishes have four types of scales forming exoskeleton : Placoid , Ganoid, Cycloid and Ctenoid scale. Placoid scales are tooth like in shape with a disc-like basal plate, occurring only in cartiliaginous fishes like Scoliodon. Ganoid scales are heavy with hard inorganic enamel-like Polypterus. Cycloid scales are smooth and have circular ridges, and are found in lung fishes. Ctenoid scales also have circular ridges but have more or less serrated/comb-like free edge. They occurs in higher bony fishes.
In mammals, sinus venosus is absent and the heart is 4-chambered with only left aortic arch. RBCs are biconcave and non-nucleated (except in camel and Llama).
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