Tips and Tricks on Principles of Communication


Modulation is required for long distance communications. Modulation is of two type, Analog and digital. A analog modulation is further of two types amplitude modulation (AM) and angle modulation is of two types.

In satellite communications uplink and downlink frequencies differ. Downlink frequency being slightly higher.

Duct super refraction of microwaves occur due to temperature inversion zones present in space. For UHF rays troposcatter of forward scatter propagation occurs. Frequency range is 900 to 5000 M Hz for UHF

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