Tips and Tricks on Breathing And Exchange Of Gases


Bronchitis: It is the inflammation of the bronchi, which is characterized by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of sero-mucous gland and goblet cells lining the bronchi. The symptom is regular coughing with thick greenish yellow sputum that indicates the underlying infection, resulting into excessive secretion of mucous. It may also be caused by cigarette smoking and exposure to air pollutants like carbon monoxide.

Emphysema: It is an inflation or abnormal distension of the bronchiole or alveolar sac involving breakdown of alveolar septa, which results into the loss f elasticity of these parts. As a result, the alveolar sac remains filled with air even after expiration, and ultimately, the lung size increases. The reason for such a condition can be assigned to cigarette smoking and chronic bronchitis.

Cough: A reflex in lower respiratory passages followed by forceful expulsion of air to remove any irritant.

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