Formulae on Morphology In Flowering Plants


The mode of arrangement of petals in floral bud with respect to other members of the same whorl is known as aestivation. When there is no overlapping of margins as in Calotropis and custard-apple, it is called valvate.If one margin of an appendage overlaps that of the next one and so on as in china rose and cotton, it is twisted. There are imbricate and vexillary types of aestivations, too.


The endospermic seeds of castor and custard-apple contain an outer hard, blackish and mottled shell called testa or the seed coat. Castor seed has hygroscopic coruncle.

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