Formulae on Ecology And Environment


Domestic effluents/sewage are rich in organic matter and cause eutrophication of water and the incumbent increase in B.O.D. and biological diversity of water. Principal pollutants among the industrial effluents are lead (from battery industries), nickle and chrome (from electroplating units), mercury (from battery and mirror glass manufactures), toxic dyes (from cloth mills and dyers ), nascent chlorine (from bleacting units), polyphosphates (from detergent units), polyphenols and formaldehyde (from tanneries and leather industries), Sulphur dioxide /suphurous acid (from sugar mills) and antibiotics (as effluents from pharmaceutical units).

Minamata is a Japanese town where 43 people died during 1953-56 after having consumed fish poisoned with dimethyl mercury. The poison had been released as effluent from a local plastic factory, and became concentrated in the flesh of sea organisms. Many townspeople suffered long -term effects (Minamata disease), including paralysis , tremors, and brain damage. (Minamata disase)

Notable disasters on the pollution front in the past have been the breakdown of the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl (Ukraine), and the leakge of Methyl iso cyanate (MIC) from the pesticide plant of Union Carbide Corporation at Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh) .

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