Formulae on Breathing And Exchange Of Gases


There are four requirements for gaseous exchange:-
(a) The respiratory surface should be thin, large and moist.
(b) It should be permeable to respiratory gases.
(c) It must be in direct or indirect contact with source of O2.
(d) If the animal has blood, the respiratory surface must have rich blood supply.

Branchial respiration is found in many organisms on the basis of their presence. It is two types - external gills (certain annelids - Arenicola, certain insects - dragonflies, Tailed amphibians - Necturus, proteus , Axolotl, Tadpol of frog) and internal gills (Prawn, unio, pila and Fishes).

Amphibians such as frog respire by means of -
(a) Cutaneous respiration (through skin)
(b) Bucco pharyngeal (through buccopharynx) and
(c) Pulmonary (through lungs).

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