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Posted on: 06:17:36 PM on June 7, 2019
Posted By:
Suchita Roy
Please explain ventilation movement in cockroach


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Posted on: 08:15:38 PM on June 10, 2019
Efforts to ascertain the effect of higher nerve centers upon insect respiration originated with Plateau (1884), who found that removal of brain tissue slowed respiratory movement in some insects. Bethe's (1897) belief has been substantiated in that the brain maintains muscle tonus through a directly facilitating homolateral connection with lower motor centers; the brain also regulates locomotor activity by inhibiting the subesophageal ganglion, which is a center that facilitates movement reflexes in the thorax. Bethe found that after removal of the brain in Hydrophilus and Apis, reflex responses become exaggerated and movements such as antenna cleaning may continue for hours. Matula (1911) stated that in Aeschna naiads, activity of the ventral ganglia is under the influence of a cerebral breathing center. Alverdes (1926), however, found that each of the first five abdominal ganglia in Cloeon naiads contain a center which regulates respiration of the corresponding gills, and that maximum gill movement is possible only if the abdominal centers are connected to a center located in the sixth abdominal ganglion. Further efforts to localize the centers controlling the breathing mechanism were made by Fraenkel (1932), in which the wasp, Vespa, was found to have its respiratory center in the thorax; no coordinated breathing movements were demonstrated in the isolated abdomen. Schreuder and de Wilde (1952) concluded that pre-anesthesian respiratory movements originate from and are under the control of a thoracic ganglion in Periplaneta americana. Miller (1960) states that the metathoracic ganglion of the locust, Schistocerca gregaria, may contain a pacemaker which controls the frequency and amplitude of ventilation. The cockroach, Blalerus craniifer, has its neural ventilative control center in the metathoracic and first abdominal ganglion, according to Case (1961). This investigation utilizes the insect spirograph to record breathing movements of the Cuban burrowing cockroach, Byrsotria fumigata. The normal respiratory movements of the intact animal are compared with the exaggerated spontaneous respiratory movements which occur after extirpation of certain portions of this insect's nervous system. From this information the influence of higher nerve centers on the respiratory center is postulated, and a general location of the center is made.

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